Eloquent: Recursive hasMany Relationship with Unlimited Subcategories

Tutorial last revisioned on August 18, 2022 with Laravel 9

Quite often in e-shops you can see many level of categories and subcategories, sometimes even unlimited. This article will show you how to achieve it elegantly with Laravel Eloquent.

We will be building a mini-project to views children shop sub-categories, five level deep, like this:

Database Migration

Here's a simple schema of DB table:

Schema::create('categories', function (Blueprint $table) {

We just have a name field, and then relationship to the table itself. So most parent category will have category_id = NULL, and every other sub-category will have its own parent_id.

Here's our data in the database:

Eloquent Model and Relationships

First, in app/Models/Category.php we add a simple hasMany() method, so category may have other subcategories:

class Category extends Model

    public function categories()
        return $this->hasMany(Category::class);


Now comes the biggest "trick" of the article. Did you know that you can describe recursive relationship? Like this:

public function childrenCategories()
    return $this->hasMany(Category::class)->with('categories');

So, if you call Category::with('categories'), it will get you one level of "children", but Category::with('childrenCategories') will give you as many levels as it could find.

Route and Controller method

Now, let's try to show all the categories and subcategories, as in the example above.

In routes/web.php, we add this:

Route::get('categories', [CategoryController::class, 'index']);

Then, app/Http/CategoryController.php looks like this:

public function index()
    $categories = Category::whereNull('category_id')
    return view('categories', compact('categories'));

As you can see, we're loading only parent categories, with children as relationships. Simple, huh?

View and Recursive Sub-View

Finally, to the Views structure. Here's our resources/views/categories.blade.php:

    @foreach ($categories as $category)
        <li>{{ $category->name }}</li>
        @foreach ($category->childrenCategories as $childCategory)
            @include('child_category', ['child_category' => $childCategory])

As you can see, we load the main categories, and then load children categories with @include.

The best part is that resources/views/admin/child_category.blade.php will use recursive loading of itself. See the code:

<li>{{ $child_category->name }}</li>
@if ($child_category->categories)
        @foreach ($child_category->categories as $childCategory)
            @include('child_category', ['child_category' => $childCategory])

As you can see, inside of child_category.blade.php we have @include('child_category'), so the template is recursively loading children, as long as there are categories inside of the current child category.

And, that's it! We have unlimited level of subcategories - in database, in Eloquent relationships, and in Views.


Hello teacher, good afternoon! It's all right?.

I have two tables, one movements and another cart_moviments, in cart_moviments I get more than one record for the same id movement_id, in my model I use hasMany and return normal with the relationships of the controller with with, so in the resource, how am I going to get the individual value for each id?.

I would like to get the value of each


vehicle_cart_id_entrance  => $this->cartMoviment->type['Entrada'],
vehicle_cart_id_exit           => $this->cartMoviment->type['Saida']
My code:
'vehicle_Cart'                  => $this->cartMoviment ?? 'N/A',
//Return Json

data": [
      "id": 123,
      "type": "Entrada",
      "department_id": "60071",
      "person_id": "21",
      "person_name": "I",
      "company_id": 41,
      "company_name": "GOOGLE",
      "vehicle_id": "2",
      "vehicle_board": "OAN8440",
      "vehicle_status": "Ativo",
      "vehicle_manufacturer": "ONIX",
      "vehicle_type": "CAVALO",
      "vehicle_Cart": [
          "id": 114,
          "moviment_id": "123",
          "type": "Entrada",
          "vehicle_cart_id": null,
          "status": "Ativo",
          "user_id": "361910e3-c173-c061-e053-20fb96965d02",
          "created_at": "02-12-2022 14:55:46",
          "updated_at": "02-12-2022 14:55:46"
          "id": 115,
          "moviment_id": "123",
          "type": "Saida",
          "vehicle_cart_id": null,
          "status": "Ativo",
          "user_id": "361910e3-c173-c061-e053-20fb96965d02",
          "created_at": "02-12-2022 14:56:37",
          "updated_at": "02-12-2022 14:56:37"

Hi, It's not a quick question I could answer in a comment, unfortunately, without actually running your system locally and debugging it.

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